Bioenergy is obtained from organic raw materials, such as:
• solid biomass such as wood
Microorganisms convert stored solar energy in biomass into energetically usable gases. Complex biocoenoses of different species and genera of bacteria and ark live in biogas plants.
Water and gases, especially methane and carbon dioxide, are produced in a controlled decomposition and fermentation process in a humid environment under exclusion of air and oxygen. The remaining fermentation substrate is a valuable fertilizer. Many farms have thus created a second mainstay in recent decades. Bioenergy now accounts for the largest share of energy from renewable sources in Germany. Usable are:
Since the introduction of the legislation for Renewable Energy Sources (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz EEG), the number of biogas plants in Germany has grown continuously. Bioenergy production has become more important as a result of efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the decreasing availability of fossil fuels and their increasing price trend, as it makes an important contribution to:
• Climate and environmental protection
• Saving of fossil resources and
• Broadening domestic raw material base
As a climate-friendly and regionally available energy raw material, biomass can be stored in comparison to other renewable energies and is therefore available as needed.The German Biomass Research Centre investigates new concepts and technical solutions from production to provision and use of biomass.